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African Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism (AJEM) is the official journal publication of EMSON. AJEM is accessible through African Journals Online (AJOL)


Prof. Felicia Anumah

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja,

Assistant Editor

Dr. Afokoghene Rita Isiavwe

Rainbow Specialist Hospital, Lekki Phase 1, Lekki, Lagos

Deputy Editors:

Prof. Fabian Puepet

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Jos, Jos.

Prof. Abraham Osinubi

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere,

Prof. Andy Uloko

Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.


Associate Editors:

Prof. Sunny Chinenye

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Port Harcourt,
Port Harcourt.

Prof. B. Kolawole

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile Ife Osun state.

Dr. Olufemi Fasanmade

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere,

Editorial Board

Prof. Rosemary Ikem

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile Ife Osun state.

Prof. Tonia Ogbera

Department of Medicine, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja,

Dr Jokotade Adeleye

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Prof. Chioma Unachukwu

Department of Medicine College of Medicine, University of Port Harcourt,
Port Harcourt.

Dr. Ademola Oremosu

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos.

Prof. Abiola Oduwole

Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos.

Dr. Ronke Samuel

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos,

Editorial Advisers:

Dr. Sony Kuku

Prof. J.A. M Otubu

Prof. E.F. Okonofia

Prof. A. E. Ohwovoriole

Prof. O.F. Giwa-Osagie

Prof Sam Dagogo-Jack

Prof. John Oli

Prof I. Ujah

Editorial Desk

African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism was founded in 1990 as an official Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Society of Nigeria (EMSON), formerly known as Nigerian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (NSEM).
As the title of the journal suggests, it is open to all areas of research in endocrinology, both experimental (animal and human) and clinical It features papers dealing with molecular and cellular biology, animal and human physiology, clinical laboratory practice and metabolism. As the journal addresses all endocrinological subspecialties, it will emphasize reviews in order to keep the readers informed about the state-of-the-art infields more distant from their own.

African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism will also publish supplements.
The African Journal strives for excellence. It depends on the quality of the manuscripts received. All readers are requested to submit high quality papers to the journal.
We hope that African Journal of Endocrinology will be attractive to its readers and will serve as a well-accepted International forum for scientific exchange in endocrinology and metabolism.

Prof Felicia Anumah




The African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (AJEM) (ISSN 116-6495)
is a biomedical peer-reviewed journal with international circulation. It
publishes Reports of Original Work, preferably briefly
described, in the fields of endocrinology, metabolism and related subjects.
Reviews are authoritative, evidence-based articles on topical subjects.
Submission in this category is generally by invitation; however,
unsolicited manuscripts are also welcome. Authors are encouraged to discuss
an outline of their idea with the editor-in-chief of AJEM. Other sections
that may feature in the journal include:

Clinical Trial
: An article concerning a drug evaluation.

: A brief commentary on subject(s) of interest.

Case Report
: A brief individual write-up of interest, especially one of an uncommon

: A short report of not more than 800 words; explained by not more than 3

: Short contribution, notes or letter to the editors mostly in response to
a previously published article inAJEM.

Book Review
: Book samples for review should be sent to the editor. Please note that
books and monographs sent will not be returned.


AJEM is now published biannually by the Endocrinology and Metabolism
Siciety of Nigeria (EMSON) formerly known as Nigerian Society of
Endocrinology (NSEM) (an affiliate of the International Society for


Endocrinology [ISE]). All papers submitted to AJEM are subjected to peer review process. The peer referees would be chosen by the editor-in-chief in relation to scientific and statistical contents and the process will take about four weeks. All accepted papers will be suitably edited before publication. Authors may be required to modify the manuscript according to
the reviewers’ suggestions. The editor will decide on the time of publication on the basis of editorial needs. The manuscripts submitted for publication cannot be returned even if not published. When the manuscript is published it will become property of the journal and copyright will be taken out in the name of AJEM.

Statement and opinions herein expressed in the article and communication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the editors or EMSON. The editor and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials and do not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication nor any claim made by the
manufacturer of such product or service.


AJEM follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journal published in the New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 324; 424and in the British Medical Journal, 199 1; 302:3 3 8-341 It is, however, advisable for authors to get a recent copy of AJEM before submission. Use double-line spacing so that the paper is easy to read. Preferred style and size of font: Times New Roman and-12.


A covering letter which could explain why the paper should be published in AJEM must accompany the manuscript. This must include a statement that the manuscript had been read and approved by all authors, that it has not been published or submitted for consideration of publication elsewhere. The covering letter must also include names, office or institutional addresses, e-mail addresses and telephone numbers of all I the authors. The Corresponding author, who is responsible for the contents of the paper, as well as answerable to same, must be indicated in the letter. Authors should retain a copy of their work to avoid eventual loss or damage in very rare cases of unforeseen circumstances.


Manuscripts can be submitted in CD (compact disc) in MS Word (in addition to the hard copies) with margins of at least 25 mm. Excel formats of all tables and figures must also be submitted.

The TITLE PAGE should include surnames and initials of all authors; full names, title, degrees, and status of the corresponding author; institutional addresses, eventual acknowledgement for financial and other supports; running title of no more than 60 characters [spaces inclusive].

Original work should be arranged in the conventional order: ABSTRACT (a short indication of the purposes of the investigation, structured in the format, Background, Materials/Patients and Methods, Results, and Conclusion[s] of about 150 to 200 words), KEY WORDS (a 5 to 1 0-word summarization); INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS /PATIENTS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION(S), ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (if any), REFERENCES, TABLES, FIGURES, LEGENDS.

Short communications and case reports may not require an abstract. In the text only standard abbreviations can be used and must be avoided in the title. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the abstract and text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permission to reproduce published material and to use illustrations or report of sensitive personal information of identifiable persons, or to name persons for their contributions.


Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. A paper with collective authorship must specify the key persons responsible for the article. Other contributing persons not mentioned among the authors should be recognized
separately in Acknowledgment. Such persons must have given their permission to be named. The Authors’ names and the order in which the names appear cannot be changed after submission.


When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) or with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers especially in any illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals indicate whether the institution’s or the National Research Council’s guide for, or national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Adequate information should be provided on the care and use of laboratory animals, source of animals, strain, age, sex, housing and nutrition, etc. The drug and chemicals used should be precisely identified, including generic name(s), dosage(s) and route(s) of administration.


Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the test. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or in legends to figure should be numbered in accordance with a sequence
established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration.

Use the style of the examples below, which are based with slight modifications on the formats used by the U.S. National Library of Medicine in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Consult list of journals indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the I library and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus. Try to avoid using abstracts as references, unpublished observations and personal communications may not be used as references, although references to written (not oral) communications may be inserted (in parenthesis) in the text. Include among the references papers accepted but not yet published; designate the journal and add ‘in press.’ Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text unpublished observations (in parenthesis).

The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. Examples of correct forms of references are given below:


Authors’ surname and initials. Title. Abbreviated Journal, Year of publication; Volume(Issue): Pages, e.g., Ajayi G, Omilabu SO. Cytokines in seminal fluid of Nigeria fertile and infertile men Afr J Endo Metab,¬† 2003; 4: 71-72.


Authors’ surnames and initials. Title of Book, Edition. Editor(s) Place: Publisher, Year, e.g., Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2 nd edition. Weiczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services, 2001.


Authors’ surnames and initials. Title of Chapter. In: editor(s). Title of Book. Place: Publisher, Year, and Pages, e.g., Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. NewYork: McGraw-Hill, 2002, pp. 93-113.


TABLES should be typed in double-line spacing on separate pages and numbered in Arabic numerals in the order of their first citation in the text. Do not use internal rules.

FIGURES should be professionally drawn or photographed; the original copy should be distinctly recognizable so that when figure is reduced for publication each item will still be legible. Figures should have distinct numeration from tables, always by Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a label on its back indicating, its number, author’s names and the top of the figure must be indicated Do not write on the back of figures and do not mount them on cardboard. Enclose two copies of figures in a separate heavy paper envelope to prevent bending during mail handling. If sending pictures advise if they must be printed in colour or black-and-white. Please note that colour pictures may cost ten times more than black-and white. Electronic pictures must also be submitted in addition to hard copies. All pictures and photomicrographs must bear a bar line for the estimation of actual size, and the length of the bar suitably explained in the legend. Detailed explanation of all illustrations must be provided in the legends.


Legends should be typed on a separate page with Arabic numeral corresponding to the illustrations.


Proofs should be corrected and returned by authors within 20 days at the most. After this deadline the corrections of the editorial office will be considered as approved, without responsibility for the publisher. The author who corrects the proofs must sign them on the front page for approval. Delay in re-submitting corrected manuscripts by authors may warrant such to be treated as fresh submissions.


The authors will be expected to contribute to the cost for every printed page plus cost of illustrations and postage. For every work published a copy of the journal and 25 -reprints without cover will be provided upon payment. With the letter of acceptance, authors will receive the preliminary estimate, which is to be settled as soon as possible to allow publication to proceed. Soon, after they will receive the galley proofs and publication will closely follow.

Reprints will be provided as a rule at the time of publication but advance reprints are available upon request. Reproductions are not allowed without the written consent of the publisher through the editor-in-chief, who will base his decision also in consideration of the editor’s and the author’s agreement.


For information about advertising in AJEM contact the editor or any other member of the editorial team.


AJEM is published biannually (2 issues per year). Subscriptions start in January and they are tacitly understood as renewed for the New Year if not cancelled by the end of October. Send subscription requests to the Editorial Office in Lagos. The sending begins after settlement of subscription fee.

Claims for issues lost in the post can be honored only up to three months in Europe, Canada and USA, and up to -six months elsewhere. Duplicate copies will not be sent to replace those undelivered through failure to notify change of address to AJEM.


Manuscripts should be submitted as email attachments to papers4ajem@gmail.com and an SMS sent to the Editor in Chief Prof. Anumah on +234 803 310 9028